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How to emulated a Process Builder Scheduled Action with Apex

Is there a way, with Apex, to deliver the folowing requirement:

When Now() falls withing 45 days before a deadline DateTime on the Account, then in such scenario:

First: verify if this Account already has a Case with criteria xyz; if such Case record already exist, update it;

Second: if no such Case exists, then create a Case with attributes xyz.

This the logic (diagram) that I need to implement in Apex:
User-added image
Assuming you have to do this using Apex Trigger Handler or Batch class, add following method wherever required after making required changes.
public static void myCustomMethod(List<Account> accountList){
    Set<Id> selectedAccIdSet = new Set<Id>();
    //Map<account Id, account>
    Map<Id, Account> accountMap = new Map<Id, Account>(accountList);
    Map<Id, Boolean> accIdCaseExistMap = new Map<Id, Boolean>();
    for(Account account : accountList){
            // set intially that this account doesn't has related case
            accIdCaseExistMap.put(account.Id, false);
    List<Case> caseList = new List<Case>([
        Select Id, AccountId, <Other fields>
        From Case
        Where AccountId IN:selectedAccIdSet
    for(Case case : caseList){
        //mark that case exists for account in accIdCaseExistMap using AccountId
        accIdCaseExistMap.put(case.AccountId, true);

        // update fields of existing cases
        case.Name = 'update if required';
        //update other fields
        case.somefield__C = accountMap.get(case.AccountId).Some_Account_Field__c
    //now wherever in accIdCaseExistMap  value is still false, it means cases doesnt exist for that account
    for(Id accId : accIdCaseExistMap.keySet()){
        if(accIdCaseExistMap.get(accId) == false){
            Case case  = new Case();
            case.AccountId = accId;
            case.name = 'some value as per requirement';
            case.Some_field__c = accountMap.get(accId).Some_Account_Field__c;
            // and other fields 
    Database.upsert(caseList, false);
change field api names, syntax as per your requirement.

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