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Answers to questions?

1) Why Partner WSDL cannot be used across multiple salesforce organizations?
2) What is SSO and how to implement it?
3) How to perform REST integration in Salesforce?
4) What are milestones in salesforce?
5) What are Knowledge, articles, and data category in salesforce?
6) Why more than 1000 opportunities should not be associated with a single user?
7) What are Shields?
SwethaSwetha (Salesforce Developers) 
HI Elixir86,

1. The partner WSDL is optimized for use with many Salesforce orgs. It’s loosely typed, and it doesn’t change based on an org’s specific configuration.This WSDL is most appropriate for developers of clients that can issue a query call to get information about an object before the client acts on the object.
Use Case -Typically, if you’re writing integration for a single Salesforce org, use the enterprise WSDL. For several orgs, use the partner WSDL.

Example: https://developer.salesforce.com/docs/atlas.en-us.api.meta/api/sforce_api_partner_examples.htm

2. Single sign-on (SSO) enables a person to log in once and access other apps and services without logging in again.
Related: https://help.salesforce.com/articleView?id=sso_about.htm&type=5
Implementation guide: https://trailhead.salesforce.com/content/learn/modules/identity_login/identity_login_sso

3. The below articles gives a good understanding of REST implementation: https://trailhead.salesforce.com/content/learn/modules/apex_integration_services/apex_integration_rest_callouts
Implementation: https://www.gosquared.com/blog/salesforce-rest-api-integration

4. Milestones represent required, time-dependent steps in your support process, like first response or case resolution times. Milestones are added to entitlement processes to ensure that agents resolve support records correctly and on time.
Creating milestone: https://help.salesforce.com/articleView?id=entitlements_setting_milestones.htm&type=5

5. Knowledge: https://help.salesforce.com/articleView?id=knowledge_whatis.htm&type=5
Data categories are used in Salesforce Knowledge (articles and article translations), Ideas, Answers, and Chatter Answers to help classify and find articles, questions, or ideas. You can use data categories to control access to a particular set of articles, questions or ideas.

7. Shield: Shield Platform Encryption allows you to natively encrypt your most sensitive data at rest across all your Salesforce apps
Recommended trail: https://trailhead.salesforce.com/content/learn/modules/spe_admins/spe_admins_get_started

I would say starting with trailhead modules is best way to learn salesforce concepts.

Hope this helps you. Please mark this answer as best so that others facing the same issue will find this information useful. Thank you