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What is a public group in Salesforce?

PriyaPriya (Salesforce Developers) 
Hello Aftab,

Groups are sets of users. They can contain individual users, other groups, the users in a particular role or territory, and/or the users in a particular role or territory plus all of the users below that role or territory in the hierarchy.
There are two types of groups:
  • Public Groups—Only administrators can create public groups. They can be used by everyone in the organization.The purpose of having public groups is to assign things or resources to it which are meant to be seen or used by everyone in the organization. Making a data or resource to everybody in an organization may be cumbersome and time consuming but by assigning it to a public group it can be done with 1 click.
  • Personal Groups—Each user can create groups for their personal use.

Kindly refer this salesforce documents on this :- https://help.salesforce.com/s/articleView?id=sf.user_groups_considerations.htm&type=5 (https://help.salesforce.com/s/articleView?id=sf.user_groups_considerations.htm&type=5)

If you like the information, Kindly mark it as the best answer so that it can help others as well.

Thanks & Regards,

Priya Ranjan

PriyaPriya (Salesforce Developers) 

Hey Aftab,

In other word, you can say , A public group is a collection of individual users, other groups, individual roles, and/or roles with their subordinates that all have a function in common

Why public groups are used in Salesforce?
Public groups in Salesforce are use to define sharing rules.

Public groups are used to extend sharing rules beyond Role hierarchies in Salesforce.

Refer this how to create a Public group :- https://www.tutorialkart.com/salesforce/how-to-create-public-groups-in-salesforce/

If the above information was helpful, kindly mark it as the best answer.

Thanks & Regards,

Priya Ranjan